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To maintain a strong safety training and enforce safe procedures at a site, a list of standing orders should be developed which state the practices that must always be followed and those that must never occur in the contaminated areas on site. Separate standing orders should be developed for the Contamination Reduction Zone and the Exclusion Zone if the hazards are sufficiently different. Sample standing orders are given in Module 12. To ensure that everyone who enters the site is aware of these orders and that a high degree of familiarity with their content is maintained, the list should be:
· Distributed to everyone who enters the site.
· Posted conspicuously at the Command Post.
· Posted conspicuously at the entrance Access Control Points into the Contamination Reduction Zone and/or the Exclusion Zone.
· Reviewed by the Field Team Leader or Project Team Leader with the field crew at the beginning of each workday. In this way, personnel are immediately informed of any new standing orders resulting from a change in site conditions or work activities. Please see the 40 hour HAZWOPER training course for more info.

In addition to the standing orders, a hazardous substance information form that lists the names and properties of chemicals present on site should be prepared and posted conspicuously. Employees should be briefed on the chemical information at the beginning of the project or whenever they first join the work team. Daily safety meetings should be held for all employees.

Initial Training

All OSHA HAZWOPER personnel assigned a role or function related to implementing the NEMP during a covered incident will be trained in the basic elements of the NEMP and the specific responsibilities of their assigned role. Initial training on the basic elements of the NEMP will be developed and implemented by DCSP's Office of Training and Education, in conjunction with the affected Directorates. All OSHA personnel assigned a role or function related to implementing either the NEMP or REMP will complete OTI 345: Basic Incident Command System [Emergency Management Institute (FEMA) Independent Study Course IS-195] and the ISC Level 200 course, to ensure their familiarity with ICS concepts and nomenclature. In addition, Regional Administrators and their designees, the Assistant Secretary, the Deputy Assistant Secretaries, National Office Executive Staff, and other designated Senior Management staff will complete ICS for Executives (Training Module 17 of the ICS training program).

Regional OSHA On-site Leaders/Coordinators will participate in the initial training identified above and in OSHA's Risk Management training program, which includes OTI 3600: OSHA Technical Assistance for Emergencies (Course A) and OTI 3610: OSHA On-site Leaders/Coordinators Course (Course B), currently under development. Key concepts in this training will include:

- Risk management. - Conducting site risk assessment for chemical-warfare, biological,
radiological, nuclear, and explosive incidents.- Developing and evaluating site safety and health plans for these kinds of incidents. - Understanding additional ICS concepts - Quantifying responder exposure during these kinds of incidents using
appropriate monitoring techniques and detection equipment.- Interpreting the data collected using appropriate analysis techniques and exposure guidelines. - Using this data to establish hot zones, safe zones, perimeters for different levels of PPE, etc.- Selecting appropriate PPE, and using, fit testing, and decontaminating the PPE selected for these kinds of incidents.

Additional training for designated OSHA personnel may include:
- Ionizing radiation: radiological dispersal devices, health effects, signs/symptoms of exposure, appropriate monitoring devices, and exposure controls and PPE, for personnel who will respond to covered incidents involving radiological dispersal devices.
- Biological agents: routes of exposure, health effects, signs/symptoms of exposure, appropriate monitoring devices, and exposure controls and PPE, for personnel who will respond to covered incidents involving biological agents.
- SCBAs/supplied air respirators: inspection, use, and maintenance.
- Advanced Detection Equipment: calibration and use of state-of-the-art direct reading instrumentation appropriate for detection of toxic chemicals, biological agents, and ionizing radiation.

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